Charles Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) is one of the most influential figures in scientific human history. He was a naturalist and geologist, well known for his contributions to the science of evolution. He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors. He introduced the scientific theory of natural selection in the process of evolution in his 1859 book “On the Origin of Species“. In 1871 he further examined human evolution and sexual selection in The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. This was followed by The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872) and many others. In addition, Darwin’s work contributed to the science and knowledge of plant life. His ideas became recognised as Darwinism, a movement covering a wide range of evolutionary ideas.