Henry Miller (December 26, 1891 – June 7, 1980) was an American writer. His was recognised as an innovator in literary form developing a new sort of semi-autobiographical novel. His work blended character study, social criticism, philosophical reflection and explicit language. His most notable books of this kind are Tropic of Cancer (1934), Black Spring (1936), Tropic of Capricorn (1939). All of these are based on his experiences in New York and Paris, and all were banned in the United States until 1961. He also wrote travel memoirs and literary criticism, and painted watercolors.