Alice in Wonderland is traditionally thought of as a children’s book (although many adults secretly read it!). Yet it’s original appeal was not to the younger aged child. Maybe Lewis Carroll thought to amend this after seeing the 1874 Dutch simplified copy of Alice in Wonderland. He subsequently wrote to his publisher, Macmillan to suggest a coloured, large print and reduced version of the book. He commented that he wished it to be “read, to be cooed over, to be dogs’ eared, to be rumpled, to be kissed,” by children from nought to five. He re-wrote the story in a child friendly format as if it was being read aloud, almost as a fairy story. It begins with “Once upon a time, there was a little girl called Alice, and she had a very curious dream.” His clever use of questions endeared children to the book. For example, “Which would you have liked the best, do you think, to be a little tiny Alice, no larger than a kitten, or a great tall Alice, with your head always knocking against the ceiling?” He also appealed to children by including a reference to a puppy called Dash – a sure winner for attracting children.
However, much of the success of the story must be also be given to the use of the popular and original illustrations by John Tenniel. The copyright expired in 1907 yet Tenniel approved the use of twenty of his images for this children’s book.
The first editions did not escape Carroll’s precise attention to detail. He rejected the entire original 10,000 sets of sheets printed by Edmund Evans claiming that the pictures were “far too bright and gaudy”. The sheets were therefore reprinted and the casings were used in subsequent editions. Twelve copies were specially bound up with un-priced titles as advertisements to the American market. Another 4,000 of these rejected sheets were sent to America with an added tipped in folded preliminary leaf dated 1890. The 6,000 remaining sheets were made up with un-priced titles as the 3rd People’s Edition. The final sets of sheets were published as a fourth issue in 1897 with an amended cheaper price label . In addition, a specially bound set of fourteen presentation editions were published in 1889.
Interestingly the Tenniel illustrations were also amended in the second editions of the Nursery Alice. The profile of Alice’s face looking at the Cheshire Cat are quite different in this second 1890 publication.
Of course, Alice in Wonderland has never been out of print and there are over one hundred English versions of this classic book. Yet the first editions of the Nursery versions are quite special – and you might even catch some adults reading them!
To see our editions of the Nursery Alice in Wonderland as well as other books by Lewis Carroll click here
We were recently asked for advice from a Canadian customer about his early edition of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. Whilst responding, it got us thinking a blog would be useful on this complex subject – the various early and first editions of these most famous of children’s books.
After all, given that Alice in Wonderland as a book has never been out of print and has been published in at least 174 languages, the number of publications of the book will be vast! We’ll only concentrate on those up to 1908 as, after 1907 the copyright expired in the UK which generated at least 8 new editions in that year alone spiraling it further into popularity and value. The variety of illustrators for this work is similarly huge and includes the masters of Arthur Rackham, Milo Winter and Getrude Kay (with of course the original and most iconic John Tenniel!). Alice in Wonderland books are obviously highly collectable and Rare and Antique Books hold several of these scarce and delightful editions.
The genuine original illustrations were actually drawn by Charles Dodgson (Lewis Carroll) himself, in his original manuscript of the tale which was inspired by a boat trip in 1862 with three daughters of The Dean of Christ Church (one of whom was Alice Liddell) and The Rev. Robinson Duckworth of Trinity College. During the trip Dodgson narrated the tale to the girls and Alice persuade him to write out the story which he completed in 1863. He then gave the illustrated manuscript, titled Alice’s Adventures Underground, to Alice who ultimately sold it for a world record price of £15,400 at Sotherby’s Auction in 1928!
These original thirty seven drawings by Dodgson are contained in the rare 1886edition of “Alice’s Adventures Underground”, so using the original title as written by Dodgson, as a facsimile of the actual original manuscript. His charming and childlike drawings perfectly capture the wonderment of Alice and the fantasy world that he was creating. There is something rather special about seeing the word and images completed in Dodgson’s own handwriting!
This publication followed twenty years on from the first official edition – the 1866 publication published by Macmillan bound in red cloth, employed John Tenniel as the illustrator. It is clear to see how he developed Dodgson’s original images. Tenniel’s images were iconic and proved to be an instant success to children and adults alike. Whilst the book is dated 1866, it was distributed in time for Christmas 1865 but itself followed an earlier printing the same year that Dodgson recalled. A handful of these exceptionally rare 1865 copies did though survive and are, without doubt, the most valuable of all published editions. At this point in time Macmillan had no idea of the future success of the title, so released the book in small printings of a few thousand at a time. The very first edition displayed no printing numbers on the title page and copies of this edition are extremely rare and valuable, especially in fine condition. This was then followed by later printings stating say “SEVENTH THOUSAND” and so on in ever increasing numbers for many years – obviously the lower the number and the earlier the publication stated, the more valuable the book, condition aside.
Next came the 1872 first edition sequel “Through the Looking Glass and What Alice Found There” which made a charming pairing with the Alice In Wonderland book. This too followed the same style of ‘thousand’ printings on the title page and the very first edition on this book is still both rare and valuable.
The trade copies of Alice’s Adventures were released in 1887 when the publisher, Macmillan, took the opportunity to make several corrections to the original text. The books were published in lower grade materials to save costs and were labelled as ‘People’s Edition’ yet the bright green and illustrated covers do not detract from their charm. These too employed the same “Thousands printing” identification that continued to run well into the 20th century.
The miniature editions published again by Macmillan in 1907 (Alice) and 1908 (Looking Glass) are similarly appealing as they followed the same design style of covers to the original editions, just smaller. They make for a far more affordable, yet delightful option for collecting or as a gift. On screen it is difficult to appreciate the charm of these small compact books which only measure 16 x 10 cm – it seems like they have taken an Alice potion to reduce their size! For the first time a more traditional identification system was used for the editions, stating the year and month of any reprint ie. “Through the Looking Glass Miniature Edition, October 1908, Reprinted December 1908”.
Once the copyright on illustration passed in 1907 there was a flurry of illustrators keen to work on Charles Dodgson’s books. At this time Arthur Rackham had recently shot to fame with his illustrated Rip Van Winkle and so his drawings were an ideal choice. Rackham’s illustrated book was published in 1907 by Heinemann with an introduction by Austin Dobson – maybe in an attempt to sway people to accept an illustrator other than Tenniel!
‘Tis two score years since Carroll’s art, With topsy- turvy magic, Sent Alice wondering through a part, Half-comic and half-tragic.
Enchanting Alice! black and white Has made your deeds perennial; And naught save “Chaos and old Night” Can part you from Tenniel;
But still you are a Type, and based, In Truth, like Lear and Hamlet; And Types may be redraped to taste In cloth-of-gold or camlet.
Here comes a fresh Costumier, then; That Taste may gain a wrinkle From him who drew with such deft pen The rags of Rip Van Winkle!
Although the initial reaction to any illustrator other than Tenniel was “just not right” the Rackham illustrations proved to be a success and are iconic Alice In Wonderland images today.
These antique and early editions of Alice in Wonderland mark the start of the profusion of illustrated books which we have witnessed since 1907 and so make them especially delightful and collectable books. To see these books and more editions by Charles Dodgson go to Lewis Carroll books.
The British Library has owned Charles Dodgson’s original manuscript since 1948 and it is now available to browse on their website. Their edition is unique in that it was created by Charles Dodgson as a gift for Alice Liddell in 1864 rather than for publication, which he adapted it for a year later. It is a fascinating read.